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As fuel is food for the engine, oil is its lifeblood.
A positive displacement gear type pump supplies the necessary volume and pressure needed to prevent engine failure. The pump consists of a drive shaft, pump body, drive gear, idler gear, pressure relief valve, and a pickup screen. The drive shaft is connected to the distributor. As the pump spins, the gears mesh together. Oil is drawn into the pump body via the pickup screen. As the oil is squeezed between the gears, the oil is then expelled into the pressure side of the pump. The relief valve has a check ball and spring preset to a specific pressure. When the pressure is excessive, it opens and regulates the output pressure.
Pressurized oil then flows through passages in the engine block to the oil filter. Once filtered it travels into the many passages in the engine block, providing oil to the moving parts. Once the oil passes through all the moving parts, gravity returns it back to the oil pan.