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Lifters:

 
Hydraulic type lifters slide into the lifter bore guides.
These guides are positioned over the cam lobes. Lifters are held in position by push rods, which fit under the rocker arms.
Lifters consist of a body, plunger, spring, check ball and retainer, rod seat, and a snap ring. The body has an oil inlet hole, which allows engine oil into the plunger. The plunger has a feedhole on the bottom. When the lifter is expanded, oil fills the lifter. As the cam reaches its peak, and compresses the plunger, the check ball blocks the oil from escaping. Since fluids cannot be compressed, the lifter becomes solid.
Once the cam passes its peak the lifter expands releasing the trapped oil. While expanded, a hole in the rod seat allows oil to travel up the push rod to lubricate the top of the valves. A snap ring holds theses parts in place.