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Engine Coolant:

The engine coolant is an antifreeze mixture.

Ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, methanol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glyco when added to water, reduce water's freeze-point. Ethylene glycol is the most common antifreeze used in the automobile industry. Antifreeze also contains corrosion inhibitors and anti-foaming agents. Borates, phosphates, nitrite, and thiazoles are added to reduce corrosion. Nonionic surfactants, silicones, and organic phosphates are used to reduce foaming.

The concentration of an antifreeze mixture is represented as: antifreeze percentage by volume. Example: one Gallon of antifreeze added to one gallon of water would be a 50% mixture of antifreeze to water.