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With the explosion of the fuel-air mixture and internal engine friction, an enormous amount of heat is created.
Fluid cooling passages are cast into the engine block and cylinder heads (water jacket). The cooling system consists of a radiator, pump (water pump), and thermostat. The pump draws cooler fluid from the bottom of the radiator, and then pushes it through the engine to the thermostat. When the thermostat reaches the proper operating temperature for the engine, it opens.
This allows fluid to return to the top of radiator where it is cooled by ram air and a fan mounted to the pump. Belts and pulleys on the crankshaft spin the pump.